October 2, 2022

AVP-eGFP was significantly upregulated by hypovolemia in the parvocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus in the transgenic rats

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is produced in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON). Peripheral AVP, which is secreted from the posterior pituitary, is produced in the magnocellular division of the PVN (mPVN) and SON. In addition, AVP is produced in the parvocellular division of the PVN (pPVN), where corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is synthesized. These peptides synergistically modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have revealed that the HPA axis was activated by the hypovolemia. However, the detailed dynamics of AVP in the pPVN under hypovolemic state has not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effects of hypovolemia and hyperosmolality on the hypothalamus, using AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic rats.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 3% hypertonic saline (HTN) was intraperitoneally administered in order to develop hypovolemia or hyperosmolality. AVP-eGFP intensity was robustly upregulated at 3 and 6 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of PEG or HTN in the mPVN. While in the pPVN, eGFP intensity was significantly increased at 6 h after i.p. administration of PEG with significant induction of Fos-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons. Consistently, eGFP mRNA, AVP hnRNA, and CRF mRNA in the pPVN and plasma AVP and corticosterone were significantly increased at 6 h after i.p. administration of PEG. The results suggest that AVP and CRF syntheses in the pPVN were activated by hypovolemia, resulting in the activation of the HPA axis.

Beneficial impact of Ac3IV, an AVP analogue acting specifically at V1a and V1b receptors, on diabetes islet morphology and transdifferentiation of alpha- and beta-cells

Ac3IV (Ac-CYIQNCPRG-NH2) is an enzymatically stable vasopressin analogue that selectively activates Avpr1a (V1a) and Avpr1b (V1b) receptors. In the current study we have employed streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic transgenic Ins1Cre/+;Rosa26-eYFP and GluCreERT2;Rosa26-eYFP mice, to evaluate the impact of sustained Ac3IV treatment on pancreatic islet cell morphology and transdifferentiation. Twice-daily administration of Ac3IV (25 nmol/kg bw) to STZ-diabetic Ins1Cre/+;Rosa26-eYFP mice for 12 days increased pancreatic insulin (p<0.01) and significantly reversed the detrimental effects of STZ on pancreatic islet morphology. Such benefits were coupled with increased (p<0.01) beta-cell proliferation and decreased (p<0.05) beta-cell apoptosis. In terms of islet cell lineage tracing, induction of diabetes increased (p<0.001) beta- to alpha-cell differentiation in Ins1Cre/+;Rosa26-eYFP mice, with Ac3IV partially reversing (p<0.05) such transition events. Comparable benefits of Ac3IV on pancreatic islet architecture were observed in STZ-diabetic GluCreERT2;ROSA26-eYFP transgenic mice.
In this model, Ac3IV provoked improvements in islet morphology which were linked to increased (p<0.05-p<0.01) transition of alpha- to beta-cells. Ac3IV also increased (p<0.05-p<0.01) CK-19 co-expression with insulin in pancreatic ductal and islet cells. Blood glucose levels were unchanged by Ac3IV in both models, reflecting the severity of diabetes induced. Taken together these data indicate that activation of islet receptors for V1a and V1b positively modulates alpha- and beta-cell turnover and endocrine cell lineage transition events to preserve beta-cell identity and islet architecture.

Change of Levels of NGF, ACTH, and AVP in the Cerebrospinal Fluid after Decompressive Craniectomy of Craniocerebral Injury and Their Relationship with Communicating Hydrocephalus

  • In recent years, the incidence of craniocerebral trauma has increased, making it one of the important causes of death and disability in neurosurgery patients. The decompressive craniectomy (DC) after severe craniocerebral injury has become the preferred treatment for patients with severe craniocerebral injury, but the incidence of postoperative hydrocephalus has become a difficult problem in clinical treatment. This study observed the changes of nerve growth factor (NGF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in the CSF after DC in patients with craniocerebral injury and analyzed the relationship between the three indicators and communicating hydrocephalus.
  • The results showed that the levels of NGF, ACTH, and AVP in patients with cranial injury after DC were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects, and subdural effusion, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH), and the levels of NGF, ACTH, and AVP in the CSF were independent risk factors for communicating hydrocephalus. Monitoring the levels of NGF, ACTH, and AVP is of great significance for clinicians to judge the occurrence of traffic hydrocephalus, evaluate the prognosis of patients with craniocerebral injury after DC, and guide clinical treatment.

Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a novel missense mutation in AVP gene in a large Italian kindred

Purpose: Familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus (FNDI), commonly caused by autosomal dominant arginine vasopressin (AVP) mutations, is a rare condition in which vasopressin fails in regulating body’s level of water with final polyuria and polydipsia. Genetic testing in familial cases of FNDI should be carry out to ensure adequate treatments and avoid disease manifestations especially in infants.
Methods: In this study, we investigated three-generations of a large Italian family with clinical diagnosis of familial central diabetes insipidus for the presence of potential pathogenic mutations in the AVP gene.
Results: We identified a heterozygous missense mutation (c.154 T > A; p.C52S) in AVP gene in all affected members studied of a large Italian family. In silico tools were used to investigate the pathogenic role of the mutation and three-dimensional protein structure predicted that the p.C52S impairs disulfide bridges formation resulting in misfolding of the protein.
Conclusions: This is the first study that identified a novel missense p.C52S mutation as causative of central diabetes insipidus in a large Italian pedigree.

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CMV-Null control Adenovirus

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Anti-AVP antibody

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Human AVP Protein

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Functional analyses of three different mutations in the AVP-NPII gene causing familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

Purpose: Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), a rare disorder, which is clinically characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, results from mutations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. The aim of this study was to perform functional analyses of three different mutations (p.G45C, 207_209delGGC, and p.G88V) defined in the AVP-NPII gene of patients diagnosed with FNDI, which are not included in the literature.
Methods: For functional analysis studies, the relevant mutations were created using PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis and restriction fragment replacement strategy and expressed in Neuro2A cells. AVP secretion into the cell culture medium was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) analysis. Fluorescence imaging studies were conducted to determine the differences in the intracellular trafficking of wild-type (WT) and mutant AVP-NPII precursors. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to determine the changing of the conformational properties of domains for both WT and 207-209delGGC mutant structures and dynamics behavior of residues.
Results: Reduced levels of AVP in the supernatant culture medium of p.G45C and p.G88V transfected cells compared to 207_209delGGC and WT cells were found. Fluorescence imaging studies showed that a substantial portion of the mutant p.G45C and p.G88V AVP-NPII precursors appeared to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas 207_209delGGC and WT AVP-NPII precursors were distributed throughout the cytoplasm.
Conclusions: The mutations p.G45C and p.G88V cause a failure in the intracellular trafficking of mutant AVP-NPII precursors. However, 207_209delGGC mutation does not result in impaired cellular trafficking, probably due to not having any significant effect in processes such as the proper folding, gain of three-dimensional structure, or processing. These results will provide valuable information for understanding the influence of mutations on the function of the AVP precursor hormone and cellular trafficking. Therefore, this study will contribute to elucidate the mechanisms of the molecular pathology of AVP-NPII mutations.

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