December 4, 2023

Activity of Trichoderma asperellum Strain ICC 012 and Trichoderma gamsii Strain ICC 080 Toward Diseases of Esca Complex and Associated Pathogens

  • Grapevine trunk diseases are widespread in all grape-growing countries. The diseases included in the Esca complex of diseases are particularly common in European vineyards. Their distinctive foliar symptoms are well known to be associated not only with losses in quantity, as with all grapevine wood diseases, but also with losses in the quality of the crop. Protection of pruning wounds is known to reduce infections in artificial inoculations and, to some extent, reduce the external leaf symptoms.
  • The application of biological control agents in the field is typically started at the first appearance of symptoms. In this article, the two strains belonging to two different species, Trichoderma asperellum ICC 012 and T. gamsii ICC 080, which are present in a commercial formulation, were tested in vitroin vivo in artificial inoculation, and in the field in long-term experiments where the wounds on four young asymptomatic vineyards were protected since 1 or 2 years after planting.
  • The in vitro trials highlighted the different temperature requirements of the two strains, the direct mycoparasitizing activity of T. asperellum, and the indirect activity shown by both Trichoderma strains. The in vivo trials confirmed the ability of the two strains to reduce the colonization following artificial inoculations with the high, unnatural concentration of spores used in artificial infections, even if with variable efficacy, and with long persistence as they could be reisolated 7 months post-application.
  • The preventive applications carried out over 9 years showed a very high reduction in symptom development in the treated vines, on annual and cumulated incidence and on the death of vines, with disease reduction varying from 66 to almost 90%. Early and annual application of protection to the pruning wounds appears to be the best method for reducing damages caused by grapevine leaf stripe disease (a disease of the Esca complex of diseases). Trichoderma appears to offer an efficient, environmentally friendly, and long-lasting protection in the presence of a natural inoculum concentration.

3D GelMA ICC Scaffolds Combined with SW033291 for Bone Regeneration by Modulating Macrophage Polarization

Despite the interaction between bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and macrophages has been found to play a critical role in repairing bone defects, it remains a challenge to develop a desirable tissue engineering scaffold for synchronous regulation of osteogenic differentiation and macrophage polarization. Herein, this study proposed a novel strategy to treat bone defects based on three-dimensional Gelatin Methacryloyl Inverted Colloidal Crystal (3D GelMA ICC) scaffold and an active 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) inhibitor SW033291. Specifically, the 3D GelMA ICC scaffolds were firstly prepared by colloidal templating method, which displayed good cell attachment and promoted intercellular interaction among macrophage and BMSCs due to its uniform pore interconnectivity.
By combined use of SW033291, the release of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from BMSCs on the GelMA ICC scaffold was significantly upregulated and macrophages M2 polarization was markedly increased. In turn, BMSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was further enhanced by paracrine regulation of M2 macrophage, and thus finally caused more in vivo new bone formation by shaping up a pro-regenerative local immune microenvironment surrounding GelMA ICC scaffold. Our findings demonstrate the potential of 3D GelMA ICC scaffolds combined with SW033291 to become an effective tissue engineering strategy for bone regeneration.

Reducing physical and emotional violence by teachers using the intervention Interaction Competencies with Children – for Teachers (ICC-T): study protocol of a multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial in Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda

Background: Violence has severe and long-lasting negative consequences for children’s and adolescents’ well-being and psychosocial functioning, thereby also hampering communities’ and societies’ economic growth. Positive attitudes towards violence and the lack of access to alternative non-violent strategies are likely to contribute to the high levels of teachers’ ongoing use of violence against children in sub-Saharan African countries. Notwithstanding, there are currently very few school-level interventions to reduce violence by teachers that a) have been scientifically evaluated and b) that focus both on changing attitudes towards violence and on equipping teachers with non-violent discipline strategies. Thus, the present study tests the effectiveness of the preventative intervention Interaction Competencies with Children – for Teachers (ICC-T) in primary and secondary schools in Tanzania, Uganda, and Ghana.
Methods: The study is a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial with schools (clusters) as level of randomization and three data assessment points: baseline assessment prior to the intervention, the first follow-up assessment 6 months after the intervention and the second follow-up assessment 18 months after the intervention. Multi-stage random sampling will be applied to select a total number of 72 schools (24 per country). Schools will be randomly allocated to the intervention and the control condition after baseline. At each school, 40 students (stratified by gender) in the third year of primary school or in the first year of secondary/junior high school and all teachers (expected average number: 20) will be recruited. Thus, the final sample will comprise 2880 students and at least 1440 teachers. Data will be collected using structured clinical interviews. Primary outcome measures are student- and teacher-reported physical and emotional violence by teachers in the past week. Secondary outcome measures include children’s emotional and behavioral problems, quality of life, cognitive functioning, academic performance, school attendance and social competence. Data will be analyzed using multilevel analyses.
Discussion: This study aims to provide further evidence for the effectiveness of ICC-T to reduce teacher violence and to improve children’s functioning (i.e., mental health, well-being, academic performance) across educational settings, societies and cultures.

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Rabbit Anti Human MAPK8 Monoclonal Clone ICC-13

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Ca 2+ transients in ICC-MY define the basis for the dominance of the corpus in gastric pacemaking

Myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) generate and actively propagate electrical slow waves in the stomach. Slow wave generation and propagation are altered in gastric motor disorders, such as gastroparesis, and the mechanism for the gradient in slow wave frequency that facilitates proximal to distal propagation of slow waves and normal gastric peristalsis is poorly understood. Slow waves depend upon Ca2+-activated Cl channels (encoded by Ano1). We characterized Ca2+ signaling in ICC-MY in situ using mice engineered to have cell-specific expression of GCaMP6f in ICC. Ca2+ signaling differed in ICC-MY in corpus and antrum. Localized Ca2+ transients were generated from multiple firing sites and were organized into Ca2+ transient clusters (CTCs). Ca2+ transient refractory periods occurred upon cessation of CTCs, but a relatively higher frequency of Ca2+ transients persisted during the inter-CTC interval in corpus than in antrum ICC-MY. The onset of Ca2+ transients after the refractory period was associated with initiation of the next CTC.
Thus, CTCs were initiated at higher frequencies in corpus than in antrum ICC-MY. Initiation and propagation of CTCs (and electrical slow waves) depends upon T-type Ca2+ channels, and durations of CTCs relied upon L-type Ca2+ channels. The durations of CTCs mirrored the durations of slow waves. CTCs and Ca2+ transients between CTCs resulted from release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and were maintained, in part, by store-operated Ca2+ entry. Our data suggest that Ca2+ release and activation of Ano1 channels both initiate and contribute to the plateau phase of slow waves.

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